As post-agricultural Tennessee underwent the transition to a modern state, many African Americans pursued the academic and professional credentials that would position them as leaders in a new society. They became teachers, physicians, dentists, nurses, architects, morticians, cosmetologists, real estate and insurance brokers, and attorneys. They started businesses, invested in real estate, and founded professional organizations in solidarity with other like-minded citizens.
Separation and Exclusion: Fisk University and the Arts by Reavis L. Mitchell, Jr.
James Carroll Napier (1845-1940) by Linda T. Wynn
Those who founded vitally important African American newspapers, such as the Henry A. Boyd’s Nashville Globe and Randolph Miller’s Chattanooga Blade not only served local businesses by providing space for advertising but also joined readers to the national audience by disseminating news of vital interest. ... More.
Public health received renewed attention after inadequate medical care and widespread disease in the Civil War. African Americans who wanted high quality care for their own people trained as physicians, nurses, and dentists. ...More.